Microelectronic Circuits  
Institution: Authors:
Shota Rustaveli State University Guladi Partenadze (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.)


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Electronic is the field of science and technology, which studies movement of charged particles in electrical vacuum, ionic and semiconductor devices and their concentration variation. The electrical properties of the devices, characteristics and parameters, the usage of these devices in the technology based on the equipment.
There are physical and technical electronics. Physical Electronics studies ongoing processes in the aforementioned devices, and technical – their usage.
Modern scientific and technical progress is closely related to the technical development of modern electronics. Electronics burst into all areas of science, technology and industry.
The main directions of the modern electronics are:
1. Radioelectronics - It handles all types of connection (radio, TV, radiolocation, radio navigation, etc.).
2. Industrial Economics – serves different fields of techniques: related to Measurement, controlling, regulating, protecting and converting equipment.
3. Nuclear (atomic) Electronics - includes hardware sector, which is linked to the study of nuclear particles making process and usage.
4. Biological Electronics – uses electronic phenomenon and equipment for biological research. It should be noted its electronic phenomenon and equipment usage in modern medicine (medical electronics).
We can also mention number of other branches (geology, chemistry, etc.), where electronic equipment and systems find great usage. Inside the above mentioned areas were identified more narrow directions in the resent period. The wide use of electronics in different fields of science and economies is due to the high sensitivity of electronic devices and equipment, small overall dimensions, linear time, accuracy and high technical index. Development of electronics promoted cybernetics, its emergence and development as science. It became possible to create fast-acting electronic calculating machines. Space research by earth artificial satellites, space crafts and automatic interplanetary stations, without electronic devices is unimaginable. It is possible to carry out research and measurements with the help of electronic circuits. Electronic amplifiers, generators, tuners, oscillographs, measuring equipment and other electronic devices are powerful tools for a variety of research, for control and automation of manufacturing process.